Benefits of Nucleotides for Immune Health?

Remy

Administrator
I'm curious about nucleotides...it is nothing new, but has been shown to have positive effects on the immune system. Has anyone tried using these?

This article,
Modulation of the immune response mediated by dietary nucleotides.

by Gil AArticle 2002 Source: European journal of clinical nutrition 2002 Aug; 56 Suppl 3: S1-4 explains how they work.

Dietary nucleotides have been reportedly beneficial, especially for infants, since they positively influence lipid metabolism, immunity, and tissue growth, development and repair.

Rapidly proliferating tissues, such as the immune system or the intestine are not able to fulfil the needs of cell nucleotides exclusively by de novo synthesis and they preferentially utilize the salvage pathway recovering nucleosides and nucleobases from blood and diet.

In the present review we describe the modulatory effect of dietary nucleotides on the immune system together with some of their effects on gut-associated lymphoid tissue.

Dietary nucleotides influence lymphocyte maturation, activation and proliferation. Likewise, they affect the lymphocyte subset populations in both the small intestine and blood.

Moreover, they are involved in enhancing macrophage phagocytosis and delayed hypersensitivity as well as allograft and tumour responses.

In addition, they contribute to the immunoglobulin response in early life, having a positive effect on infection. In fact the incidence and duration of acute diarrhoea is lower in infants fed supplemented-nucleotide formulas.

The molecular mechanisms by which dietary nucleotides modulate the immune system are practically unknown. Dietary nucleotides have been shown to enhance the production and the genetic expression of IL-6 and IL- 8 by foetal small intestinal explants. Dietary nucleotides may influence protein biosynthesis as well as signal membrane transduction mediated by the interaction of exogenous nucleosides and their receptors may also contribute to modulate the expression of a number of genes, some of which can directly affect the levels of intestinal cytokines.
This website (full disclosure they appear to be selling something, but not sure it's nucleotides!) offers a nice summary too of the potential benefits.

Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomers, or subunits, of nucleic acids like DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). The building blocks of nucleic acids, nucleotides are composed of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and at least one phosphate group.

It is the building blocks of DNA and RNA (one nucleotide is one “unit” of a DNA or RNA strand). Our body needs tons of these any time a cell divides to make a new copy of DNA and when it makes proteins (proteins are responsible for pretty much everything that goes on in our body).

Nucleotides are the key to cellular regeneration designed to address the need of serious athletes and successfully tested by sportsmen and women in independent, high-intensity and endurance.

Our body creates nucleotides is synthesized using old proteins or ‘synthesis from amino acids’. What we eat contributes to how nucleotides are created. For example is glutamine and glucose. Food sources of nucleotides are found in food we can eat such as lamb, liver, mushrooms. However, not all fruit and other vegetables are rich in nucleotides.

Nucleotides are also found in human breast milk, which is important for growth of the baby taking it.
Humans adapt to dietary nucleotide intake by downregulating production

This means that if you are a healthy person, dietary nucleotides are probably not essential or important. However, when our body is sick, under extreme stress or poor diet, these dietary nucleotides becomes essential.
The production of nucleotides in our body when sick, optimizes the function of the gastrointestinal (villi comes alive) and boosts the immune systems.
Nucleotides Supplementation

Nucleotides are tiny building blocks of RNA and DNA, which are the blueprints for every cell in your body. Each of your trillion plus cells contains 6 billion nucleotides. These building blocks are stored in a very limited quantity in your liver. Trauma, surgery, immune challenges and other stresses can rapidly deplete the body’s stores of nucleotides. When depleted, rebuilding critical supplies of nucleotides to meet the body’s demands can take several days, if not weeks.

Supplemental nucleotides has four elements:
1. Ribonucleotides
2. Cytidine Monophosphate (CMP)
3. Uridine Monophosphate (UMP)
4. Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)
5. Guanosine Monophosphate (GMP)

Nucleotides are fundamental nutrients like minerals which must be supplied from outside the body. They are found most abundantly in human breast milk. No other mammal has nearly
the concentration that is found in human breast milk. Nucleotides in breast milk are essential to a baby’s developing immune system. When breastfeeding isn’t possible, a nucleotide-enriched formula is recommended.

For young, healthy people, getting enough nucleotides from food may be possible, but as we grow older, this pathway becomes less efficient and our ability to absorb nucleotides decreases. Therefore, nucleotides in supplement form can provide an excellent solution.
Benefits of Oral Nucleotides Supplement

1. Boost your immune system

Nucleotides have important effects on the growth and development of cells which have a rapid turnover, such as those in the immune system and the gastrointestinal tract. Dietary nucleotide improves markers of immune response to strenuous exercise under a cold environment. Nucleotides help gut mucosal defense, which is also part of the immune system.
2. Repairs the Intestines

Nucleotides enhance intestinal repair after injury (alcohol, gluten, casein, others).
Animal work shows that villi height and crypt depth in the intestine is increased as a result of dietary nucleotides. This should increase nutrient absorption. Dietary nucleotides enhance the intestinal absorption of iron. They have been found to promotes healing of small bowel ulcers in experimental ulcerative ileitis.
They also help in the prevention and treatment of the injurious effects of NSAIDs (aspirin, ibuprofen)
3. Nucleotides Enhances Learning

In rats, dietary nucleotides increase phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, DHA and arachidonic acid in the cerebral cortex. These rats were found to have enhanced learning.
4. Nucleotides May Help Prevent Cancer

Nucleotide deficiency promotes genomic instability in early stages of cancer development. Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by stress on DNA replication.
Nucleosides rescued the replication stress and DNA damage and dramatically decreased cancer-induced transformation.
5. Nucleotides May Help Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disorder affecting an estimated 15 – 22% of western populations. Animal work shows that villi height and crypt depth in the intestine is increased as a result of dietary nucleotides.
Dietary nucleotides may be semi-essential under conditions of ill-health, poor diet or stress. Dietary nucleotide supplementation improves some of the symptoms of irritable bowel above baseline and placebo level.
6. Nucleotides Extends Life Span in a “rat experiment”

A 2013 study found that nucleotides in relatively low dosages, dose-dependently inhibits the age-related decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the age-related increase in the levels of oxidation product in both sexes. Compared to the control group, the incidence of death from tumors was decreased in both sexes.
Various experiments were done on Nucleotides but there are few website that have made a comprehensive reviewon how Nucleotides fares in truly boosting a person’s immunity and treating disorders mentioned.
Side Effects of Nucleotides Supplementation

Some have reported stimulating effects of Nucleotides but with sedating side effects.


Leading brands of Nucleotides supplement


● Swanson Ultra Mixed Nucleotides with Imunil
● Quantum Nucleotide Complex
● Invite Nucleotide Complex
● Imuregen
 

Remy

Administrator
From the same paper as above, "It has been proposed that dietary nucleotides exert effects upon cellular immune functions by acting on the T-helper=inducer population with the predominant effect on the initial phase of antigen processing and lymphocyte proliferation.

The suggested mechanism would be the suppression of uncommitted T-lymphocyte responses as demonstrated by higher activities of deoxynucleotidyl transferase, a marker of undifferentiated lymphocytes, in primary lymphoid organs of mice fed a nucleotide-free diet (Kulkarni et al, 1989).

Another hypothesis is that exogenous nucleotides may modulate T-helper (Th) cell-mediated antibody production (Jyonouchi et al, 1994). It has been suggested that dietary nucleotides may favour the balance of T cell differentiation to Th-2 cells, which are mainly involved in the B-cell response and in the suppression of pro-inflammatory reactions induced by Th-1 cells.

The molecular mechanisms by which dietary nucleotides modulate the immune system are practically unknown. It has been suggested that the small intestine should play a key role in the regulatory effects of nucleotides upon the immune response.

The gut-associated lymphoid tissue can initiate and regulate T cell development and may act as a thymus analogue (Walker, 1996). Dietary nucleotides have been shown to enhance the production and the genetic expression of IL-6 and IL-8 by foetal small intestinal explants when challenged with IL-1 beta, the response being nucleotide concentration dependent.

Furthermore, the addition of AMP to the culture media resulted in the suppression of crypt cell proliferation followed by the restoration of differentiation and the induction of apoptosis across the human small intestinal epithelium (Sa´nchez-Pozo et al, 1999).

Dietary nucleotides may influence the protein biosynthesis by regulating the intracellular nucleotide pool. In addition, signal membrane transduction mediated by the interaction of exogenous nucleosides and their receptors may also contribute to modulate the expression of a number of genes, some of which can directly affect the levels of intestinal cytokines (Figure 1)."
 

Michal

New Member
My doctor actually advised me to try Imuregen for PEM and poor recovery, so I was considering it, but I don't like that it favors Th-2 cell differentiation over Th-1:

"Type 1 T cells produce interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), an essential cytokine in the viral cell-mediated immune response. Th2 cells selectively produce interleukin 4 (IL-4) and IL-5 that participate in the development of humoral immunity and have a prominent role in immediate-type hypersensitivity. An imbalance in the Th1/Th2 cytokine immune response has been related to pathogenesis of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis and to the severity of the infection."

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16618789
 

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