2007 Mar 23;1138:30-8. Epub 2007 Jan 9.
Moclobemide attenuates anoxia and glutamate-induced neuronal damage in vitro independently of interaction with glutamate receptor subtypes.
1, Steinschneider R
, Bernard FX
, Gillardin JM
Recent data suggested the existence of a bidirectional relation between depression and neurodegenerative diseases resulting from cerebral ischemia injury.
Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter, has long been recognised to play a key role in the pathophysiology of anoxia or ischemia, due to its excessive accumulation in the extracellular space and the subsequent activation of its receptors.
A characteristic response to glutamate is the increase in cytosolic Na(+) and Ca(2+) levels which is due mainly to influx from the extracellular space, with a consequent cell swelling and oxidative metabolism dysfunction.
The present study examined the in vitro effects of the antidepressant and type-A monoamine oxidase inhibitor, moclobemide, in neuronal-astroglial cultures from rat cerebral cortex exposed to anoxia (for 5 and 7 h) or to glutamate (2 mM for 6 h), two in vitro models of brain ischemia. In addition, the affinity of moclobemide for the different glutamate receptor subtypes and an interaction with the cell influx of Na(+) and of Ca(2+) enhanced by veratridine and K(+) excess, respectively, were evaluated. Moclobemide (10-100 microM) included in the culture medium during anoxia or with glutamate significantly increased in a concentration-dependent manner the amount of surviving neurons compared to controls. Moclobemide displayed no binding affinity for the different glutamate receptor subtypes (IC(50)>100 microM) and did not block up to 300 microM the entry of Na(+) and of Ca(2+) activated by veratridine and K(+), respectively.
These results suggest that the neuroprotective properties of moclobemide imply neither the glutamate neurotransmission nor the Na(+) and Ca(2+) channels.