CFS / ME may have Th2 dominance

Mats Lindström

Active Member
There are several published articles and studies that indicate that a majority of people with ME may have Th2 dominance
Source

Th2 dominance implies that T helper cells most work with the cytokines try to keep track of bacteria, parasites and allergens. Th1 fighting against viruses and will then get it hard. Th1 also seems to be more related to the non-specific immune system which is interesting.
Th1 are the body's first defense against enemies that enter the system. They have a tendency to be pro-inflammatory and has to do with the development of organ-specific autoimmune diseases.

Th2 works with bacteria, toxins and allergens. They stimulate the production of antibodies in response to enemies in the blood or other body fluids (extracellular pathogenes). They tend not to be inflammatory, and has to do with autoimmunity in the entire bodily system and other chronic conditions.
Source

T helper cells
In the late 1980s it was discovered that the T-helper cells (T lymphocytes with CD4 marker on its surface) occurs in different subtypes, Th1 and Th2, that secrete different patterns of cytokines: activated Th1 mainly produce IL-2 and INF (gamma), while Th2 produces a range of other cytokines: IL-4, IL-13, IL-5, IL-9 and others. Th2 cells produce also IL-10 - it is important!

Alutard SQ will maybe work
"In the beginning, nothing happened, but after a few months of treatment with Alutard SQ , I have become increasingly better, the first noticeable improvements after maybe eighth injection or so. At first, not fewer infections, but they were much milder and shorter, more and more often without fever." Specific immunotherapy affects the body distribution of cytokines by the ratio of T-helper cells change; it is including less of proinflammatory Th2 cytokines such as IL-4 (interleukin-4) and IL-5; and more of the immunoregulatory IL-10, is important to prevent autoimmunity.
Source

1. The unspecific immune response is linked to the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 and IL-6 and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10

2. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine and suppresses Th1 cytokines

3. IL-10 also inhibits activation of mast cells (histamine production)

There seems to be no routine tests to check Th dominance. However, there is the ability to control through a blood test to reference values for both Th1 and Th2.
Source

Facts / helper cells (CD4 + T cells)
Helper cells, or CD4 + T cells which is the scientific name, is an important part of the immune system. The cells can be described as conductors that control the body's defense against intruders. Helper cells act by secreting proteins in different ways affects and can curb attacks on the body. Without helper cells would be the body's defense capability to be severely impaired, an example is HIV when the virus attacks these cells and weakens the immune system.
Source

Alutard SQ has several effects
Recruitment of T lymphocytes and eosinophils to the target organ is inhibited, followed by a marked "switch" in the production of Th2 cytokines to the production of Th1 cytokines. The synthesis of IL-10 increases, which can give a T lymfocytanergi, and release of histamine from basophils decreases.
Source

Alutard switches thus Th2 dominance to a more normal balance between Th1 / Th2
Alutar increase in particular IL-10 production, which is favorable for reducing histamine development, better regulation concerning autoimmunity and somehow seem to favor the non-specific immune response that seems most dependent on Th1.
Obviously, I do not know or can even say anything, but it would be interesting to check the Th1 / Th2 balance of a group of people with CFS / ME who are vulnerable to infection.
 

IrisRV

Well-Known Member
@Mats Lindström, you might also want to look into the more recently discovered Th17 system. See here. It turns out it's not just a Th1/Th2 balance. Th17 has to be taken into consideration at well. Th17 may be an even more significant factor for patients than Th1 or Th2.
Moreover, it has become evident that aberrant regulation of Th17 cells may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory and autoimmune disorders.
It's amazing how complicated the immune system is.
 

Remy

Administrator
I agree with @IrisRV...the Th1/Th2 system is simplistic at best and potentially totally inaccurate.
I say this as someone who went off that premise of needing to boost Th1 for over a year and I think I was totally on the wrong track. There is actually a test to measure this. It's called the Stimulated Cytokine Panel by Neuroscience.
https://www.neurorelief.com/index.php?p=testDet&testID=141&TestPanelName=Stimulated Cytokine Analysis Th1/Th2/Th17
When I did this test, I discovered that my immune system was far from underactive...it was actually overactive on both Th1 and Th2 arms.
It's changed my thinking a lot and consequently my treatment strategy has gone from trying to stimulate an underactive immune system to attack infections to now trying to calm down an overactive immune system which is overproducing inflammatory cytokines in response to infections that no longer exist.
This is where LDI comes in...low dose immunotherapy. It's supposed to re-train the immune system to not react inappropriately. It's very new though and people are having decidedly mixed results.
 

RuthAnn

Well-Known Member
I agree with @IrisRV...the Th1/Th2 system is simplistic at best and potentially totally inaccurate.
I say this as someone who went off that premise of needing to boost Th1 for over a year and I think I was totally on the wrong track. There is actually a test to measure this. It's called the Stimulated Cytokine Panel by Neuroscience.
https://www.neurorelief.com/index.php?p=testDet&testID=141&TestPanelName=Stimulated Cytokine Analysis Th1/Th2/Th17
When I did this test, I discovered that my immune system was far from underactive...it was actually overactive on both Th1 and Th2 arms.
It's changed my thinking a lot and consequently my treatment strategy has gone from trying to stimulate an underactive immune system to attack infections to now trying to calm down an overactive immune system which is overproducing inflammatory cytokines in response to infections that no longer exist.
This is where LDI comes in...low dose immunotherapy. It's supposed to re-train the immune system to not react inappropriately. It's very new though and people are having decidedly mixed results.
Remy, what do you take for LDI? Do you have a doctor for it?
 

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