Why males get MS less often than females

Merry

Well-Known Member
An article published in Neuroscience News two days ago describes a discovery by scientists at Northwestern University that explains the mechanism that protects male mice from developing the lab mouse version of multiple sclerosis.

Using a mouse model of MS, they have identified a guardian molecule — triggered by testosterone — that appears to protect males from disease. When female mice with disease are treated with this protective molecule, their symptoms were eliminated. . . .

Northwestern scientists showed that testosterone caused mast cells, a type of immune cell, to produce the guardian molecule, cytokine IL-33, in male mice. The guardian molecule triggers a cascade of chemicals that prevents the development of another type of immune cell, so-called Th17 cells, that can directly attack the myelin.

In this model of disease, similar to MS in humans, females develop more of a disease-causing Th17 immune response than males. These Th17 cells, attack and destroy the myelin. But that damaging response was reversed in females by treatment with IL-33.

I liked this little detail about how a mistake led to progress in this research:
The discovery stemmed from an earlier lucky mistake in the lab in which male mice were used instead of female mice, because a graduate student hadn’t yet learned to identify the nearly imperceptible genitals of male mouse pups.
 
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Cort

Founder of Health Rising and Phoenix Rising
Staff member
An article published in Neuroscience News two days ago describes a discovery by scientists at Northwestern University that explains the mechanism that protects male mice from developing the lab mouse version of multiple sclerosis.





I liked this little detail about how a mistake led to progress in this research:
That's a biggie Merry! Thanks for posting. Broderick found testosterone to be protective in ME/CFS as well. Hmm.....
 

Merida

Well-Known Member
Thanks Merry and Cort. I would like to know how testosterone and other hormones influence spinal fluid production and consequently influence intracranial pressure. We are the only mammals that walk on 2 legs. This presents an evolutionary conundrum for CSF circulation that is not shared with 4 legged creatures.
 
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Cort

Founder of Health Rising and Phoenix Rising
Staff member

Cort

Founder of Health Rising and Phoenix Rising
Staff member
Thanks Merry and Cort. I would like to know how testosterone and other hormones influence spinal fluid production and consequently influence intracranial pressure. We are the only mammals that walk on 2 legs. This presents an evolutionary conundrum for CSF circulation that is not shared with 4 legged creatures.
and this?

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29391028

J Transl Med. 2018 Feb 2;16(1):21. doi: 10.1186/s12967-018-1397-7. Improvement of severe myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome symptoms following surgical treatment of cervical spinal stenosis.
Rowe PC1, Marden CL2, Heinlein S3, Edwards CC 2nd4.
 

Merida

Well-Known Member
@Cort
Yeah !! I imagine that the stenosis also interrupts normal CSF flow, and may cause back flow pressures and other pressure related issues ? And to detect this, I understand that MRIs must be done with neck in extension and in flexion ?

I was checked for cervical stenosis - do not have it. But have an abnormally straight neck ( lack of curve) with spinal fluid 'jets' in the neck. Katz and colleagues published research showing most FM people ( 75-80% ?? forget) have abnormally straight neck curves.

Many years ago wonderful neurosurgeons Daniel Heffez and Michael Rosner published and spoke on this issue of CNS structural problems and FM/CFS, but were ostracized by the rheumatologists and psychiatrists, and just about everybody.

Thirteen years ago I gave a great neurosurgeon - an expert in this whole area ( not Heffez, not Rosner) - a book, a masterpiece, of structural and function- Chiropractic : The Anatomy and Physiology of Sacro-Occipital Technique by Jonathan Howatt, DC, DICS. He read it. I asked what he thought - could FM/CFS really be caused by CNS structural issues, and the important interconnections from pelvis to brain as detailed by the sacro-occipital chiropractors? He walked pensively around the room and said, " It will take 20 years." Hmmm.

P.S. The 'straight neck' is related to issues in the sacrum and pelvis.
 

Merry

Well-Known Member
How interesting!

Now I wonder why any percentage of the male population gets it at all.
The article had this to say:

In addition to a higher incidence of MS in women, there are also sex-determined differences in the average age of onset and subtype of the disease. Women generally develop MS at a younger age and usually have a relapsing-remitting course of disease. Men develop the disease later in life and it usually continues to worsen without periods of improvement. The development of the disease in men also correlates with age-related reduction of testosterone levels.
 

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