Vicious Circle: Cytokines, Oxidative Stress, NTIS and MECFS: Annex and References

Annex and References for: 

The Relevance of Research on Critical Illnesses for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome ME/CFS: A vicious cycle between cytokines, oxidative stress and thyroid hormones

Annex: Additional mechanisms in NTIS

Beyond the “vicious circle,” and “central” and “peripheral” mechanisms described in this post – which are the focus of most of the publications on NTIS – researchers are also looking into additional thyroid hormone activity and related mechanisms in NTIS.

I list some of these here because they echo some of the ME/CFS research as well:

  • The hypothalamic / central suppression of the pituitary – growth hormones and pituitary – adrenal-cortisol axes (van den Berghe, 2016)
  • The displacement of thyroid hormones from their thyroid hormone binders by fatty acids (De Groot, 2015) and by salicylates (Biondi, 2014);
  • The inhibition of thyroid transport into cells by nonesterified fatty acids and bilirubin (De Groot, 2015);
  • The mediation of the activities of deiodinase enzymes by glucocorticoids, estradiol, growth hormones (Gereben, 2008) and serotonin (Kharrazian, 2011);
  • Novel thyroid hormone transcriptional mechanisms (Singh, 2018);
  • Variations in the “non-genomic” effects of thyroid hormones (Incerpi, 2018) – notably on cell membranes (DeVito, 2011);
  • Variations in the release of activated thyroid hormones back into the bloodstream by the liver – a major source of activated thyroid hormones (Volkmar, 2005);
  • Variations in the release of thyroid hormones by the gut – a major reserve of thyroid hormones (Duszka, 2018);
  • Changes in the “clearance” of active and inactivated thyroid hormones respectively from the body (Bartalena, 1998);
  • The breakdown of thyroid hormones through sulfation, conjugation and cleavage (Chatzitomaris et al., 2017.);
  • The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) – a bacterial endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria in the gut – on the modulation of peripheral mechanisms;
  • The converse effect of thyroid hormones on the release of cytokines (Volkmar, 2005; Hodkinson 2009; DeVito et al., 2011; Rozing et. al, 2011);
  • etc.


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